Other than BD sales, what typically determines whether or not an anime will get another season?
How well it does as an advertisement.
Aren't there many times when the anime is more profitable than the manga though?
Merchandise sales, alot of series will have some form of promotional merchandise you can buy when the season starts - nendroids, figures, etc.
Merch sales, aka figs.
Sales of the source material, aka light novels, manga.
Sales of anything else attached to the property, aka the CDs of the opening song.
>more profitable than manga
Paper and ink is cheap. Animation is not.
Who funds it, the shift in the original material sales and merch sales.
Sometimes a show won't sell well, but will have high ratings (aka amount of people who watched it on TV). And they will attempt to make a second season based on that. Good examples would be Mitsudomoe or Princess Tutu.
Otherwise, I'd say merchandise sales are the next highest contributing factor. Sometimes entire anime are made just to sell merchandise and not really the DVD/BD at all. The most famous examples are obviously Gundam and Digimon. But other series have tried it too. They never admitted it, but I think Nadesico was a stunt to sell merchandise, especially focused on Ruri. Considering they made every concievable type of merchandise for that show. Not just the usual pencil boards, posters, wall scrolls and figurines. But also video games.
>if manga/LN sales are high (TWOGK)
>merchandise/CD sale are good (Symphogear)
>government/public funded anime (Phi Brain, Chihayafuru)
>the studio is fucking crazy and doesn't care what happens (Tamako Market)
>availability of source material (if not enough source material, can't have a s2)
>If your anime is named Natsume Yuujinchou, you get a s5
off the top of my head.
This guy knows his shit.
Anyway, in the case of TWOK, they used Kanon merch to fund S3, and they did it out of pure love, because they knew from the beginning it wouldn't be profitable, just like the other 2 seasons.
Also, high source material sales can work against a next season, specially if the sales have increased due to the anime. Since the "commercial" was so successful, there's no need to advertise it again until drop fall again. See Haruhi, for example.